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McMaster University was founded in 1887; McMaster is one of the Top 100 universities in the world (Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2012). The “McMaster Model” – a student-centered, problem-based, interdisciplinary approach to learning – has been adopted by universities around the world. With a total sponsored research income of $325.9 million, McMaster University ranks sixth in the country in research intensity – a measure of research income per full-time faculty member – averaging $248,600 per faculty member (Research Infosource Inc., 2012). McMaster is the only North American host site of a United Nations University, the Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH). McMaster participates in more than 70 international exchange agreements around the globe.


The University of Toronto was founded as King’s College in 1827 and has evolved into a large and complex institution. It now occupies three campuses: Scarborough, Erindale and the historic St. George campus. It has federated with three smaller universities, which are on the St. George campus, and is affiliated with several colleges and institutes. There are ten fully affiliated teaching hospitals in metropolitan Toronto. The University is Canada’s most important research institution and has gained an international reputation for its research. It enrolls more students, employs more faculties, and offers a greater range of courses than any other Canadian university. A liberal arts education is the heart of the undergraduate curriculum at Toronto, and the Faculty of Arts and Science has more students than any other faculty. The education of students for the professions has always been an important part of the University’s role, and the University accordingly maintains a wide range of professional faculties. The University’s insistence on the importance of research in all disciplines has made it the major center for graduate education in Canada. In many fields it produces a majority of the nation’s doctoral candidates. The quality and range of the programs - undergraduate, graduate and professional - attract students from all parts of the province, from around the country and from abroad. The University maintains many laboratories and specialized aids to research. The Library and many of these research facilities are available for use by members of other universities.


In just half a century, the University of Waterloo, located at the heart of Canada’s technology hub, has become a leading comprehensive university with 34,000 full- and part-time students in undergraduate and graduate programs. Consistently ranked Canada’s most innovative university, Waterloo is home to advanced research and teaching in science and engineering, health, environment, arts and social sciences. From quantum computing and nanotechnology to clinical psychology and health sciences research, Waterloo brings ideas and brilliant minds together, inspiring innovations with real impact today and in the future. As home to the world's largest post-secondary co-operative education program, Waterloo embraces its connections to the world and encourages enterprising partnerships in learning, research, and commercialization. With campuses and education centers on four continents, and academic partnerships spanning the globe, Waterloo is shaping the future of the planet.


ECN is the Dutch Government Energy Research Institute that has been involved with all forms of energy research.  They have developed a high-performance PV cell technology with a plan to license the technology. They have recently licensed this technology to Yingli.  ECN was a major consultant to the ARISE PV cell factory in Germany.


Fraunhofer is Europe’s largest application-oriented research organization. Their research efforts are geared entirely to people’s needs: health, security, communication, energy and the environment. As a result, the work undertaken by the researchers and developers has a significant impact on people’s lives. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is the largest organization for applied research in Europe. At present, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft maintains 66 institutes and research units. The majority of the more than 22,000 staff are qualified scientists and engineers with the annual research budget totaling €1.9 billion. Of this sum, €1.6 billion is generated through contract research. More than 70 percent of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft’s contract research revenue is derived from contracts with industry and from publicly financed research projects. Almost 30 percent is contributed by the German federal and Länder governments in the form of base funding.